There are two courts located within the city limits of Texas City. The Texas City Municipal Court and the Precinct 5 Justice of Peace Court.
The lowest court level in Texas is the Justice of the Peace Court (also called Justice Court or JP Court).
Original jurisdiction in "criminal matters of misdemeanor cases punishable by fine only" (called "Class C" misdemeanor cases under the Texas Penal Code),
Galveston County has a dedicated County Probate Court which handles probate related cases. There are no jurisdictional monetary limits on the types of lawsuits that a statutory probate court may hear.
The district court has exclusive jurisdiction on felony cases, cases involving title to land, and election contest cases.
It shares jurisdiction with the county courts, and in some case justice of the peace courts, for civil cases (its lowest limit for hearing a case is a mere $200 in controversy, while JP courts can hear cases up to $10,000). In a "catchall" provision it hears all cases "in which jurisdiction is not placed in another trial court."
The 306th District Family Court of Galveston County handles just family related cases. It shares jurisdiction with county courts at law 1, 2 and 3.
In addition to judicial powers, district judges also have administrative duties as well. District judges may remove county officials, officials of a general-law municipality, and municipal court judges, under certain circumstances. Also, they appoint and supervise the county auditor, oversee the operations of the adult and juvenile probation offices, and are granted "supervisory" jurisdiction over the county commissioners court.
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